The history of the Val d'Aran is closely related to Occitan culture of the south of France. Close contacts with the Iberian peninsula was largely determined by geography of the region. Garona River, which flows to France for centuries, helped the inhabitants of the valley to stay in touch with the neighboring country, with Occitan culture and language. Despite the multiple cultural ties with France, in the XIV century the inhabitants of the valley took a voluntary decision to move under the control of the Crown of Aragon, receiving in return a number of rights and privileges under the title La Querimonia. However, until the end of the XVIII century they were run by the French Diocese Comenge. Feudal relations have never appeared in the Val d'Aran, and local people continue to speak Aranese language wich is a Gascon dialect of Occitan language.
The first settlements in the area date back to the Aran Bronze Age, according to the results of archaeological excavations in the Plan-de-Beret and the National Park. The presence of the Romans are dated IV and V cc., according to the excavations in the area of the villages Arties and Tredós or, more precisely, near actual spa resorts. In the annals of the IV century the . independent settlements of that époque was already called Arenos, arenosi.
The Christianization of the Aran passed quickly, according to the excavations in Garos. Many Romanesque churches were built in Gothic, Renaissance and Baroque styles and are also witnessing the spread of Christianity, which came in the Val d'Aran after the fall of the empire of Charlemagne.
Since the XI-XII centuries Aran has experienced a lot of foreign invasion which involved territorial disputes between the French and the Spanish nobility. The often claimed the establishment of feudal relations in the valley with the support of kings and nobles. The struggle for land became more intense in the XIV century. The inhabitants of the Valley managed to retain the right to govern their own territorial units and their system of public land. At the heart of their social and economic hierarchy lays the concept of "home" and "family".
In fact, until the middle of the XX century the valley was cut off from Catalonia and Aragon in the cold winter season. It was easy to reach Aran during the summer months. The discovery in 1924 of a mountain pass, Bonaigua, allowed Aran to establish links with Catalonia, but it was only in 1948, when the Vielha tunnel was built, that an active traffic between valley and neighboring Spanish regions became a reality. In 2007 a new modern and safe tunnel crossing through the Pyrenees was opened.
In 2013, the valley celebrates three major historical events that have influenced its current status and partial independence: 800th anniversary of the battle Batalla de Muret, 700 anniversary of the signing Era Querimònia (number of privileges and rights granted in 1313 by King Jaume II for the inhabitants of the Aran Valley) as well as the 500th anniversary of the signing of the Treaty of Peace and Cooperation Agreement between the territories and the settlements of the French Pyrenees, as well as the Spanish side, the unity of holidays and traditions, mythology, artistic and cultural heritage.
Era Querimònia recognizes fot he inhabitants of the Valley organizational and administrative autonomy, the right to free disposal of their lands, forests, mountains, water, pastures, the right to regulate hunting or fishery. Also, according to the document they are exempt from paying taxes on the census, donations, taxes on inheritance or donation, and they are exempt from real servitude. They were only required to pay an annual tax on wheat, taken from each family. Curiously, word Querimònia comes from the Latin word queror, which means "to complain." According to the document, the Aran valley came under the control of the kingdom of Aragon after a prolonged phase of contesting the territory by the French and Aragonese authorities. The conflict was triggered by the end of 1282, when Peter the Great, King of Aragon, claimed Sicily. France, taking advantage of the decree of Pope Martin IV of excommunication from the Church of the King of Aragon, seized Val d'Aran November 1, 1283 and held territory until the matter with Sicily was not settled, referring to the fact that the island always was a part of her possessions. Territorial disputes and claims continued until 1313.
King Jaume II of Aragon is responsible for securing the constitutional rights and maintaining the customs of the Aranese culture in the document Era Queremònia. This document was respected and confirmed by all subsequent rulers until the Spanish king Fernando VII when the valley joined through an open union to the counties of Catalonia in 1411 at which time the Valley got its independent status . At present, the valley is lobbying for the recognition of certain historical rights to the governments of Catalonia and Spain as well as the Spanish crown.